Ebola: From monkeys to usPosted: August 14, 2013
Ebola is caused by a virus that causes viral hemorrhagic fever – that is to say, it results in fever and bleeding disorders, shock, and eventually, death. Other symptoms include edema, migraine, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Occurring most often in the African continent, ebolavirus outbreaks happen when the virus jumps from its animal reservoir to a human, thus spreading through the human population; however, it is still unknown which animal harbours ebolavirus, although a strong suspect is bats.
The first ebolavirus (EBOV) was isolated in 1976, in what was then known as Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo), when it caused an outbreak in the local population, and was thus named the Zaire ebolavirus, or the Zaire virus. Almost simultaneously, a second species of ebola virus was isolated in Sudan, and thus was called Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV); at first it was thought to be of the same species as EBOV, but later studies proved it to be of a different species. Later, animal laboratory workers in Reston, Virginia, got a scare, when ebolavirus was identified in the sick primates that they had been handling. Luckily for them, this turned out to be an Asian species of ebolavirus that did not cause disease in humans. All in all, five genetically and immunologically distinct species of ebolavirus have been isolated, with each species having several different strains. The most virulent species is EBOV, or Zaire virus, with an average case fatality rate of approximately 83%, and there have been more outbreaks of EBOV than any other ebolavirus.
EBOV and its kin are RNA viruses that are unusually genetically stable, allowing researchers to determine that most outbreaks were caused by different strains of different species of ebolavirus, indicating that these outbreaks were probably from different viral reservoirs. Ebolaviruses are unusual in that they are one of the only species of filamentous animal viruses in the world; filamentous viruses are more usually found in plants, so it has been posited that ebolaviruses may have evolved from plant viruses. Ebolaviruses have an outer lipid envelope, which technically means that the virus can be disrupted via alcohol-based agents; however, very low levels of virions are needed for infection to occur in humans (in the range of 1-10 virions). As transmission from humans to humans is via contact with an infected person’s blood or other body fluids, practicing the barrier nursing (or these days, the standard precautions) method, involving the use of protective equipment such as gloves, masks, gowns and so on, is more effective and useful in preventing transmission.
It has been problematic to elucidate the mechanism of ebolavirus infection because of a lack of samples and the difficulty of culturing the virus in the laboratory. However, researchers finally figured out the structure of the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as derived from a human survivor of an outbreak. EBOV GP is the only virally expressed protein on the surface of the virion; it is important in the replication cycle of EBOV because it is responsible for the attachment of the EBOV virion to host cells, as well as virion-cell membrane fusion. Hence, it is a vital target of vaccines against EBOV. Various types of vaccines, including live attenuated and DNA subunit vaccines, have been developed against EBOV, and thus far they have had some promising success in animal models such as mice, guinea pigs, and macaques.
EBOV and its kin primarily attack endothelial cells, white blood cells and red blood cells, and overwhelms the protein synthesis mechanism in these cells. It is also able to interfere with our adaptive immune system by inhibiting the activation of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell. After entering these cells, these viruses replicate in the cytoplasm, then cause the host cell to burst, spreading their virions even further throughout the body. When enough cells burst, this causes the patient’s organs to break down, and their blood to stop clotting, leading to death, if the virus is not expelled from the body by the immune system in time.
Unfortunately, there is no curative treatment available for ebolaviruses; there is only supportive treatment that helps to mitigate the symptoms. Although there is a promising drug target called Niemann–Pick C1(NPC) present in the cell membrane, which is important in helping EBOV bind to our cells, a drug that can successfully target NPC is still under development. Thus the best way to avoid being infected would be to avoid contact with bats or non-human primates, and to wear protective equipment when taking care of people who have been infected with ebolaviruses. Frighteningly, it seems that EBOV can be transmitted between species through the air via large droplets, although the range of such transmission is limited.
The Ebola Virus poster (Science Infographics 2011 Honorable Mention)
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